protected void finalize () throws Throwable

Deprecated: The finalization mechanism is inherently problematic. Finalization can lead to performance issues, deadlocks, and hangs. Errors in finalizers can lead to resource leaks; there is no way to cancel finalization if it is no longer necessary; and no ordering is specified among calls to finalize methods of different objects. Furthermore, there are no guarantees regarding the timing of finalization. The finalize method might be called on a finalizable object only after an indefinite delay, if at all. Classes whose instances hold non-heap resources should provide a method to enable explicit release of those resources, and they should also implement AutoCloseable if appropriate. The java.lang.ref.Cleaner and java.lang.ref.PhantomReference provide more flexible and efficient ways to release resources when an object becomes unreachable.

Overriding: java.lang.Object

Called by the garbage collector on an object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object. A subclass overrides the finalize method to dispose of system resources or to perform other cleanup.

The general contract of finalize is that it is invoked if and when the Java™ virtual machine has determined that there is no longer any means by which this object can be accessed by any thread that has not yet died, except as a result of an action taken by the finalization of some other object or class which is ready to be finalized. The finalize method may take any action, including making this object available again to other threads; the usual purpose of finalize, however, is to perform cleanup actions before the object is irrevocably discarded. For example, the finalize method for an object that represents an input/output connection might perform explicit I/O transactions to break the connection before the object is permanently discarded.

The finalize method of class Object performs no special action; it simply returns normally. Subclasses of Object may override this definition.

The Java programming language does not guarantee which thread will invoke the finalize method for any given object. It is guaranteed, however, that the thread that invokes finalize will not be holding any user-visible synchronization locks when finalize is invoked. If an uncaught exception is thrown by the finalize method, the exception is ignored and finalization of that object terminates.

After the finalize method has been invoked for an object, no further action is taken until the Java virtual machine has again determined that there is no longer any means by which this object can be accessed by any thread that has not yet died, including possible actions by other objects or classes which are ready to be finalized, at which point the object may be discarded.

The finalize method is never invoked more than once by a Java virtual machine for any given object.

Any exception thrown by the finalize method causes the finalization of this object to be halted, but is otherwise ignored.

Throwable    the Exception raised by this method

See also:
java.lang.ref.WeakReference, java.lang.ref.PhantomReference

@apiNote Classes that embed non-heap resources have many options for cleanup of those resources. The class must ensure that the lifetime of each instance is longer than that of any resource it embeds. java.lang.ref.Reference.reachabilityFence can be used to ensure that objects remain reachable while resources embedded in the object are in use.

A subclass should avoid overriding the finalize method unless the subclass embeds non-heap resources that must be cleaned up before the instance is collected. Finalizer invocations are not automatically chained, unlike constructors. If a subclass overrides finalize it must invoke the superclass finalizer explicitly. To guard against exceptions prematurely terminating the finalize chain, the subclass should use a try-finally block to ensure super.finalize() is always invoked. For example,

     protected void finalize() throws Throwable {
         try {
             ... // cleanup subclass state
          finally {

@jls 12.6 Finalization of Class Instances